British Columbia and Yukon- Yukon South

Location:
Yukon Territory is situated in the northwest corner in Canada and borders along Alaska (WorldAtlas.com).


Map/Images:
British Columbia and Yukon- Yukon South - Canadian Glacier Inventory Project
Map of Yukon Territory within Canada (Outback Imports: Yukon Canada, 2007).

Click here for an interactive map of the Yukon. (Yukon Geologic Survey - http://www.geology.gov.yk.ca)

Yukon Glacier Photo site

Land:
  • Land Area: 478,970 km^2
  • Freshwater Area: 4.480 km^2
  • Total Area: 483,450 km^2
(WorldAtlas.com)


Climate:
  • Yukon Territory has a sub-arctic climate
  • In the southwest region, there are moderate temperatures
  • Winters are cold and summers are mild
  • Yukon is relatively dry throughout the year and has a total precipitation that ranges from 250 mm in the valleys and 600 mm in the mountainous areas
  • There are greater amounts of precipitation in the winter than the summer
  • The average depth of snow accumulation in the winter is 50-70 cm
  • The average temperatures in January, range from –20oC to -32oC
  • The average temperature in July is 14oC
(Yukon Government, 2006b)

Temperature: Daily Averages (1971-2000) & Records (Celsius)


AVERAGES
RECORDS

Jan.
July
Low
High
Burwash Landing
-22.0
12.8
-55.0
31.7
Dawson
-26.7
15.6
-55.8
34.7
Mayo
-25.7
16.0
-62.2
36.1
Old Crow
-31.1
14.6
-59.4
32.8
Teslin
-19.2
13.9
-52.8
33.3
Watson Lake
-24.2
15.1
-58.9
34.2
Whitehorse
-17.7
14.1
-52.2
34.4


(Yukon Government, 2006b)

Precipitation: Average Annual Totals (1971-2000)

TOTAL (mm)
RAIN (mm)
SNOW (cm)
Burwash Landing 279.7 192.1 106.4
Dawson 324.3 199.9 160.0
Mayo 312.9 205.3 147.0
Old Crow 265.5 144.2 129.3
Teslin 343.3 203.7 148.2
Watson Lake 404.4 255.2 196.5
Whitehorse
267.4
163.1
145.0
(Yukon Government, 2006b)

Physical Geography:
  • The Yukon is surrounded by permafrost throughout the north; however, less than 25% is found in scattered areas in the southern region. The southern Yukon is covered by thin layers of permafrost, compared to the north where the thickness may be over 300 m (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).
  • The southwestern region of Yukon is compiled of varying types of rock that are young, amalgamated and accreted (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).
  • Some of the sedimentary rocks in the southern Yukon are <150 million years old (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).
  • There are five belts located in Yukon (South to North)
      1. Insular Belt (will be examined below)
      2. Coast Belt (will be examined below)
      3. Intermontane Belt
      4. Omineca Belt
      5. Foreland Belt
(Indian and Northern Affairs Canada)
British Columbia and Yukon- Yukon South - Canadian Glacier Inventory Project
The location of the five belts in Yukon Territory (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).


The Insular Belt is located in the Kluane National Park and Reserve of Canada area, where the glaciers are located. The Insular Belt is composed of rocky, high, and large mountains that are comprised of sedimentary and volcanic rocks from oceanic origin. During the last 15 million years, the majority of the belt has been uplifted by tectonic activity. The rate of movement has been approximately 3 cm/yr. Yukon’s current topography is due to rapid uplift and many periods of extensive glaciations over the past 1.6 million years (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).

The Coast Belt is composed of granitic rocks, which are resistant to weathering due to the high silica content. The Coast Belt has high-relief, rugged, steep-sided mountains. Similar to the Insular Belt, the Coast Belt has been subjected to tectonic uplifting around 50 million years ago. There have been numerous glacial events that have modified the topography, along with excessive precipitation resulting in gully erosion and steep mountain sides. The Coast Belt topography has been modified by numerous glacial events, and more recently by excessive precipitation causing intensive gully erosion, which has resulted in steepened mountain sides (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada).


Kluane National Park and Reserve of Canada:
Area: 21, 980 km2
Physical Geography: High, steep mountains, large ice fields, abundant valleys
(Parks Canada)

British Columbia and Yukon- Yukon South - Canadian Glacier Inventory Project

Interesting Facts:
  • Highest Point: Mount Logan (6,050 m) (WorldAtlas.com)
  • Lowest Point: Arctic Ocean (Sea level) (WorldAtlas.com
  • Yukon Territory represents 4.8% of Canada’s total land area (Yukon Government, 2006)
  • Yukon rock units that are older than 120 million years old, have been folded at least once (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada)
  • St. Elias Mountains is home to the world’s largest non-polar ice field (Yukon Government, 2006a)

Glaciers:

British Columbia and Yukon- Yukon South - Canadian Glacier Inventory Project

Glaciers located across the Alaskan-Yukon border:
Anderson Glacier
Chitina Glacier
Columbus Glacier
Disappointment Glacier
Hubbard Glacier
Kaskawulsh Glacier
Kluane Glacier
Klutan Glacier
Logan Glacier
Quintino Sella Glacier
Seward Glacier
Walsh Glacier

Glaciers located within the Yukon Territory, Canada:
Donjek Glacier
Dusty Glacier
Lowell Glacier
Ogilvie Glacier
Steele Glacier
Trapridge Glacier

Glaciers located across the British Columbia-Yukon border:
Tweedsmuir Glacier

List of Glaciers not presented on this website or had insufficient information:
Agassiz Glacier Alverstone Glacier Annapolis Glacier Atlantic Glacier
Augusta Glacier Backe Glacier Brabazon Glacier Burwash Glacier
Cabot Glacier Cascade Glacier Cathedral Glacier
Centennial Glacier
Chaleur Glacier Colombus Glacier Disappointment Glacier Easter Glacier
Felsite Glacier Foster Glacier Gibson Glacier Hazard Glacier
Hodgson Glacier Kennedy Glacier Maxwell Glacier Miramichi Glacier
Mount Wood Glacier Mussell Glacier Nelson Glacier Nesham Glacier
Newton Glacier Ottawa Glacier Prairie Glacier South Arm Glacier
Spring Glacier Stairway Glacier T-Bone Glacier The Great Shelf Glacier
(GSC, 2003)

References:
Clarke, G.K.C. and Holdswort, G., 2002. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Canada, Glaciers of the St. Elias Moutains, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 1386-J-1

Geological Survey of Canada, 2003. The Atlas of Canada. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/freshwater/
distribution/glaciers. Accessed on March 21, 2007.

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Yukon GeoProcess File: (An inventory of geological processes and terrain
hazards). Exploration and Geological Services Division, 54pp.

Outback Imports: Yukon Canada, 2007. Outback Imports. http://www.outbackimports.ca/news.html. March 11, 2007.

Parks Canada, Kluane National Park and Reserve of Canada. http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/yt/kluane/index_e.asp. March
9, 2007.

Yukon Goverment, 03.2006a. Geography. http://www.gov.yk.ca/yukonglance/geography.html. March 9, 2007.

Yukon Government, 03.2006b. Yukon Facts. http://www.gov.yk.ca/facts/index.html. March 9, 2007.

WorldAtlas.com, Yukon Territory. http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/province/ykz.htm. March 9,
2007.